Advertisement

New evidence of the influence of exogenous and endogenous factors on sperm count in man

  • Wai Yee Wong
    Affiliations
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands

    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Search for articles by this author
  • Gerhard A. Zielhuis
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Search for articles by this author
  • Chris M.G. Thomas
    Affiliations
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands

    Department of Chemical Endocrinology, University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Search for articles by this author
  • Hans M.W.M. Merkus
    Affiliations
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Search for articles by this author
  • Régine P.M. Steegers-Theunissen
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Tel.: +31-24-3619132; fax: +31-24-3613505.
    Affiliations
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands

    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Objective: To examine the association between individual exposures due to occupation, environment and lifestyle on sperm count, we conducted a case-control study among 92 fertile and 73 sub-fertile Caucasian males. Study Design: Data from questionnaires were analysed using simple univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results: At risk for oligozoospermia are men exposed to pesticides (odds ratio (OR) 8.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–52.1), welding (OR 2.8; CI 0.9–8.7), antibiotic use (OR 15.4; CI 1.4–163), a history of mumps (OR 2.9; CI 1.3–6.7), gastrointestinal complaints (OR 6.2; CI 1.4–26.8), decreased intake of fruits (OR 2.3; CI 1.0–5.1), vegetables (OR 1.9; CI 0.7–5.0), or with female fertility disorders in their families (OR 8.4; CI 1.7–41.9). Unlike other studies, no associations were observed between oligozoospermia and exposure to paint or heat. Conclusion: This study suggests new risk factors oligozoospermia in man and confirms previously reported results from others.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      References

        • Whorton D.
        • Thomas H.M.
        • Krauss R.M.
        • et al.
        Testicular function in DBCP exposed pesticide workers.
        J. Occup. Med. 1979; 21: 161-166
        • Welch L.S.
        • Schrader S.M.
        • Turner T.W.
        • et al.
        Effects of exposure to ethylene glycol ethers on shipyard painters. II. Male reproduction.
        Am. J. Ind. Med. 1988; 14: 509-526
        • Sharpe R.M.
        • Skakkebaek N.E.
        Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract.
        Lancet. 1993; 341: 1392-1395
        • Bonde J.P.
        Semen quality in welders exposed to radiant heat.
        Br. J. Ind. Med. 1992; 49: 5-10
        • Jelnes J.E.
        • Knudsen L.E.
        Stainless steel welding and semen quality.
        Reprod. Toxicol. 1988; 2: 213-215
        • Kucheria K.
        • Saxena R.
        • Mohan D.
        Semen analysis in alcohol dependence syndrome.
        Andrologia. 1985; 17: 558-563
        • Vine M.F.
        • Tse C.K.
        • Hu P.
        • et al.
        Cigarette smoking and semen quality.
        Fertil. Steril. 1996; 65: 835-842
        • Thonneau P.
        • Bujan L.
        • Multigner L.
        • et al.
        Occupational heat exposure and male fertility: a review.
        Hum. Reprod. 1998; 13: 2122-2125
        • Kynaston H.G.
        • Lewis Jones D.I.
        • Lynch R.V.
        • et al.
        Changes in seminal quality following oral zinc therapy.
        Andrologia. 1988; 20: 21-22
        • Kwiecinski G.G.
        • Petrie G.I.
        • DeLuca H.F.
        Vitamin D is necessary for reproductive functions of the male rat.
        J. Nutr. 1989; 119: 741-744
        • Ciereszko A.
        • Dabrowski K.
        Sperm quality and ascorbic acid concentration in rainbow trout semen are affected by dietary vitamin C: an across-season study.
        Biol. Reprod. 1995; 52: 982-988
        • Vezina D.
        • Mauffette F.
        • Roberts K.D.
        • et al.
        Selenium-vitamin E supplementation in infertile men. Effects on semen parameters and micronutrient levels and distribution.
        Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1996; 53: 65-83
        • Schlegel P.N.
        • Chang T.S.
        • Marshall F.F.
        Antibiotics: potential hazards to male fertility.
        Fertil. Steril. 1991; 55: 235-242
        • Purvis K.
        • Christiansen E.
        Infection in the male reproductive tract. Impact, diagnosis and treatment in relation to male infertility.
        Int. J. Androl. 1993; 16: 1-13
      1. Forman R, Gilmour-White S, Forman S. Antibiotics. In: Forman R, Gilmour-White S, Forman N, editors. Drug-induced infertility and sexual dysfunction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1996. p. 85–91.

        • Rostami K.
        • Steegers E.A.P.
        • Wong W.Y.
        • Braat D.D.
        • Steegers-Theunissen R.P.M.
        Coeliac disease and reproductive disorders: a neglected association.
        Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 2001; 96: 146-149
        • Tuerlings J.H.A.M.
        • de France H.F.
        • Hamers A.
        • et al.
        Chromosome studies in 1792 males prior to intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection: The Dutch experience.
        Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 1998; 6: 194-200
        • Wong W.Y.
        • Merkus H.M.
        • Thomas C.M.
        • Menkveld R.
        • Zielhuis G.A.
        • Steegers-Theunissen R.P.
        Effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate on male factor sub-fertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
        Fertil. Steril. 2002; 77: 491-498
      2. World Health Organization. Laboratory Manual for the examination of human semen and semen-cervical mucus interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1992.

        • Tielemans E.
        • Heederik D.
        • Burdorf A.
        • et al.
        Intra-individual variability and redundancy of semen parameters.
        Epidemiology. 1997; 8: 99-103
        • Thonneau P.
        • Abell A.
        • Larsen S.B.
        • et al.
        Effects of pesticide exposure on time to pregnancy. Results of a multicenter study in France and Denmark.
        Am. J. Epidemiol. 1999; 150: 157-163
        • Wilcox F.H.
        • Shorb M.S.
        The effect of antibiotics on bacteria in semen and on motility and fertilizing ability of chicken spermatozoa.
        Am. J. Vet. Res. 1958; 19: 945-949
        • Timmermans L.
        Influence of antibiotics on spermatogenesis.
        J. Urol. 1974; 112: 348-349
        • Steeno O.P.
        Side-effects of salazopyrin on male fertility.
        Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 1984; 18: 361-364
        • Hirson C.
        Coeliac infertility—folic acid therapy.
        Lancet. 1970; 1: 4-12
      3. Love AHG, Elmes M, Golden MK, et al. Zinc deficiency and coeliac disease. In: McNicoll B, McCarthy CF, Fotterll PF, editors. Perspectives in coeliac disease. Lancaster: MTP Press; 1978. p. 335–342.

        • Farthing I.J.G.
        • Rees L.H.
        • Edward C.R.W.
        • et al.
        Male gonadal function in coeliac disease: sex hormones.
        Gut. 1983; 24: 127-135
      4. Rostami K, Kerckhaert J, Werre JM, et al. High prevalence of coeliac disease in apparently healthy blood donor suggests a high prevalence of undiagnosed coeliac disease in the Dutch population. Scand J Gastroenterol 1999;34:276–9.

        • Wong W.Y.
        • Thomas C.M.G.
        • Merkus J.M.W.M.
        • et al.
        Male factor sub-fertility: possible causes and the impact of nutritional factors.
        Fertil. Steril. 2000; 73: 435-442
        • Ratcliffe J.M.
        • Schrader S.M.
        • Steenland K.
        • et al.
        Semen quality in papaya workers with long-term exposure to ethylene dibromide.
        Br. J. Ind. Med. 1987; 44: 317-326
        • de Cock J.
        • Westveer K.
        • Heederik D.
        • et al.
        Time to pregnancy and occupational exposure to pesticides in fruit growers in The Netherlands.
        Occup. Environ. Med. 1994; 51: 693-699
        • Tielemans E.
        • van Rooij R.
        • te Velde E.R.
        • et al.
        Pesticide exposure and decreased fertilisation rates in vitro.
        Lancet. 1999; 354: 484-485
        • Bonde J.P.
        • Giwercman A.
        Occupational hazards to male fecundity.
        Reprod. Med. Rev. 1995; 4: 59-73
        • Curtis K.M.
        • Savitz D.A.
        • Weinberg C.R.
        • et al.
        The effect of pesticide exposure on time to pregnancy.
        Epidemiology. 1999; 10: 112-117
        • Tas S.
        • Lauwerys R.
        • Lison D.
        Occupational hazards for the male reproductive system.
        Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 1996; 26: 261-307
        • Lindbohm M.-L.
        Effects of occupational solvent exposure on fertility.
        Scand. J. Work Environ. Health. 1999; 25: 44-46
        • Veulemans H.
        • Steeno O.
        • Masschelein R.
        • et al.
        Exposure to ethylene glycol ethers and spermatogenic disorders in man: a case-control study.
        Br. J. Ind. Med. 1993; 50: 71-78
        • Mieusset R.
        • Bujan L.
        Testicular heating and its possible contributions to male infertility: a review.
        Int. J. Androl. 1995; 18: 169-184
        • Neuwinger J.
        • Behre H.M.
        • Nieschlag E.
        External quality control in the andrology laboratory: an experimental multicenter trial.
        Fertil. Steril. 1990; 54: 308-314