Review| Volume 157, ISSUE 1, P3-9, July 2011

Trichomoniasis: evaluation to execution


      Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted disease, caused by a motile flagellate non-invasive parasitic protozoan, Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis). More than 160 million people worldwide are annually infected by this protozoan. T. vaginalis occupies an extracellular niche in the complex human genito-urinary environment (vagina, cervix, penis, prostate gland, and urethra) to survive, multiply and evade host defenses. T. vaginalis (strain G3) has a ∼160 megabase genome with 60,000 genes, the largest number of genes ever identified in protozoans. The T. vaginalis genome is a highly conserved gene family that encodes a massive proteome with one of the largest coding (expressing ∼4000 genes) capacities in the trophozoite stage, and helps T. vaginalis to adapt and survive in diverse environment. Based on recent developments in the field, we review T. vaginalis structure, patho-mechanisms, parasitic virulence, and advances in diagnosis and therapeutics.


      Ad (adhesion molecules), AT (agglutination test), CCC (cation-chloride cotransporter), CBD (cell-binding domain), CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), CE (cytopathic effects), ePKs (eukaryotic protein kinases), ECM (extracellular matrix), Fdx (ferredoxin), FN (fibronectin), GBD (gelatin-binding domain), GPI (glycosylated phosphatidylinositol), GU (gonococcal urethritis), HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), HPV (human papillomavirus), IL-8 (interleukin 8), LRR (leucine-rich repeat), LPG (lipophosphoglycan), LF (lytic factors), Mz (metronidazole), MzR (metronidazole-resistant), MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), NTD (N-terminal domain), NGU (non-gonococcal urethritis), NAAT (nucleic acid amplification test), Pap (Papanicolaou), PE (phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine), PCR (polymerase chain reaction), KOH (potassium hydroxide), NADPH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), STI (sexually transmitted infections), snRNA (small nuclear RNAs), TMA (transcription-mediated amplification), tRNAs (transfer RNA), TM (transmembrane), TKL (tyrosine kinase-like), UTR (untranslated region), UTI (urinary tract infection), VECs (vaginal epithelial cells), VSP (variant surface proteins)


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