Research Article| Volume 159, ISSUE 1, P168-171, November 2011

Prevalence and risk factors for human papillomavirus DNA in cervical cytology



      This study aimed to detect the presence and prevalence of HPV-DNA in the cervical swab samples obtained from patients with cervical cancer, premalignant cervical lesions and benign cervical smear results, and to identify the potential risk factors influencing this prevalence.

      Study design

      Smear preparations were examined and classified according to the Bethesda system. HPV-DNA detection and genotyping was carried out using polymerase chain reaction combined with reverse hybridization line-probe assays. Age, smoking habit, age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, number of term births, contraceptive method, progesterone therapy, history of sexually transmitted diseases, history or existence of warts, existence of cervical infection and the history of circumcision of male sexual partners were recorded.


      Six hundred and forty-two women (96 women with abnormal cervical cytology and 546 women with normal cytology) provided cervical samples. Multiplex PCR testing revealed that prevalence of HPV-DNA was 38.9% in our study population. HPV-DNA was detected in 78.3% of the women with cervical cancer and 76.9% of the women with HGSIL. Abnormal cervical cytology was observed in 30% of HPV-DNA positive cases and in 5.4% of HPV-DNA negative cases. Our findings also indicate that smoking habit, number of sexual partners, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and abnormal cervical cytology were associated with HPV infection. With respect to parity, there was a decreased risk of HPV infection with the increase in the number of births.


      Estimates of the prevalence of HPV infection vary greatly around the world, so the factors that contribute to the rare occurrence of cervical cancer after HPV infection might also differ from country to country. Information gathered from this study could be used to prioritize limited screening and treatment services given to woman who have specific characteristics that may put them at an increased risk of HPV disease.


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