This review covers the most important female congenital pelvic malformations. The first part focuses on the embryological development of the urogenital and anorectal apparatus, morphological features, and the diagnostic and surgical approach to abnormalities.
Comprehension of the embryological development of the urogenital and anorectal apparatus is essential to understand the morphology of congenital pelvic abnormalities and their surgical treatment.
Congenital pelvic malformations are characterized by specific common features; the severity of which often subverts the pelvic morphology completely and makes it difficult to comprehend before surgery. The development of imaging, mainly magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, in the investigation of pelvic floor disorders has recently become a fundamental tool for surgeons to achieve better understanding of the anatomy.
Forty years ago, the primary aim of clinicians was to save the lives of such patients and to achieve anatomical normality. However, nowadays, functional reconstruction and recovery are essential parts of surgical management. Introduction of minimally invasive surgery has allowed the improvement of cosmetic results that is so important in paediatric or adolescent patients after reconstructive surgery.
The option of sharing the complexity of pelvic congenital diseases by entrusting specific competencies to subspecialists (paediatric urologists, urogynaecologists, neurourologists, paediatric endocrinologists and neonatologists) has improved the quality of care for patients. However, at the same time, active interaction between various specialists remains fundamental. The exchange of knowledge and expertise, not only during the diagnostic–therapeutic process but also during follow-up, is crucial to obtain the best anatomical and functional results throughout the life of the patient.
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Published online: July 13, 2011
Accepted: June 9, 2011
Received in revised form: April 30, 2011
Received: January 26, 2011
© 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.