Research Article| Volume 159, ISSUE 1, P83-86, November 2011

Effect of smoking and ABO blood groups on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight



      The negative effects of cigarette smoking on human reproduction and on birth weight are well documented. On the other hand ABO system, encoding for glycosyltransferases, contributes to biosynthesis of antigens and oligosaccharide structures involved in blastocyst adhesion and intrauterine selection. In this paper we have searched for possible interaction between ABO system and smoking concerning their effects on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight.

      Study design

      We have studied 395 consecutive healthy puerperae from the White Caucasian population of Rome. ABO blood group was determined by standard laboratory methods. Three-way contingency table analysis was performed according to Sokal and Rohlf and Chi square test of independence by SPSS programs.


      The proportion of smokers is higher in A phenotype than in other ABO types among young puerperae (≤24 years) while it is lower in A phenotype than in other types among older women. The negative effects of smoke on birth weight is much more evident in women with A blood group than in women carrying other ABO phenotypes. The interaction between smoking and ABO blood groups concerning their effects on birth weight is influenced by gender of newborn and by maternal age.


      ABO blood groups and smoking could have a joint influence on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight.


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