Abuse and disrespect in childbirth assistance in Italy: A community-based survey

      according to WHO, many women across the globe experience disrespectful and abusive treatment during childbirth, violating not only their rights to respectful care, but also threatening their rights to life, health, bodily integrity, and freedom from discrimination [
      • WHO
      The prevention and elimination of disrespect and abuse during facility-based childbirth. WHO statement: Every woman has the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to dignified, respectful health care.
      ]. Such conditions have been described as ‘obstetric violence’ (OV), a term that stands for the appropriation of the body and reproductive processes of women by health personnel during pregnancy, childbirth and post-partum. Although OV was first described in Latin America during the 2000s [
      • Pérez D’gregorio R.
      Obstetric violence: a new legal term introduced in Venezuela.
      ] and the term is mostly used in developing countries [
      • Pickles C.
      Eliminating abusive ‘care’: a criminal law response to obstetric violence in South Africa.
      ], abuse and disrespect during childbirth are diffused worldwide and their perception is increasing in developed countries as well [
      • Miller S.
      • Lalonde A.
      The global epidemic of abuse and disrespect during childbirth: history, evidence, interventions, and FIGO’s mother-baby friendly birthing facilities initiative.
      ].
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      References

        • WHO
        The prevention and elimination of disrespect and abuse during facility-based childbirth. WHO statement: Every woman has the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to dignified, respectful health care.
        2015 (WHO/RHR/14.23)
        • Pérez D’gregorio R.
        Obstetric violence: a new legal term introduced in Venezuela.
        Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2010; 111: 201-202
        • Pickles C.
        Eliminating abusive ‘care’: a criminal law response to obstetric violence in South Africa.
        South African Crime Q. 2015; 54: 5
        • Miller S.
        • Lalonde A.
        The global epidemic of abuse and disrespect during childbirth: history, evidence, interventions, and FIGO’s mother-baby friendly birthing facilities initiative.
        Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2015; 131: S49-52
        • Freedman L.P.
        • Ramsey K.
        • Abuya T.
        • et al.
        Defining disrespect and abuse of women in childbirth: a research, policy and rights agenda.
        Bull World Health Organ. 2014; 92: 915-917