Full length article| Volume 241, P88-93, October 2019

Download started.


Reducing the incidence of pregnancy-related urinary tract infection by improving the knowledge and preventive practices of pregnant women



      Pregnancy-related urinary tract infections (UTI) is the leading cause of obstetrical ward admissions and is responsible for poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. This study aimed to reduce the incidence of UTI by improving the knowledge and preventive practices of pregnant women through the implementation of a health education package.

      Study Design

      A health education package consisting of a seminar, sending of weekly text messages, and distribution of educational leaflets on UTI awareness and prevention was implemented in various rural health units in Pampanga, Philippines. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the pre- and post-intervention knowledge and preventive practices of pregnant women. Whereas, urinalysis results from the various rural health units were used to assess the incidence of UTI among the respondents.


      Significant improvement (p <  0.001) was observed regarding the participant’s knowledge and water intake after the intervention. Although there was no significant change (p =  0.16) in their hygiene statistically, all participants had improvements in hygiene practices after the intervention. The number of pregnant women who were positive for UTI also decreased significantly (p <  0.001) following the intervention.


      The implemented health education package was able to reduce the incidence of pregnancy-related UTI by improving the knowledge and preventive practices of pregnant women.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


        • Kontiokari T.
        • Laitinen J.
        • Jarvi L.
        • Pokka T.
        • Sundqvist K.
        • Uhari M.
        Dietary factors protecting women from urinary tract infection.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 77: 600-604
        • World Health Organization
        Urinary tract infections.
        • Department of Health
        Field health service information system (FHSIS) annual report.
        • Arul Prakasam K.C.
        • Dileesh Kumar K.G.
        • Vijayan M.
        A cross sectional study on distribution of urinary tract infection and their antibiotic utilisation pattern in Kerala.
        Int J Pharmtech Res. 2012; 4: 1309-1316
        • Al-Badr A.
        • Al-Shaikh G.
        Recurrent urinary tract infections management in women: a review.
        Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2013; 13: 359-367
        • Lawani E.U.
        • Alade T.
        • Oyelaran D.
        Urinary tract infection amongst pregnant women in Amassoma, Southern Nigeria.
        African J Microbiol Res. 2015; 9: 355-359
        • Hamdan H.Z.
        • Ziad A.H.M.
        • Ali S.K.
        • Adam I.
        Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital.
        Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2011; 10: 2
        • Baer R.J.
        • Bandoli G.
        • Chambers B.D.
        • Chambers C.D.
        • Oltman S.P.
        • Rand L.
        • et al.
        Risk of preterm birth among women with a urinary tract infection by trimester of pregnancy.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019; 220: S433-4
        • Dimetry S.R.
        • El-Tokhy H.M.
        • Abdo N.M.
        • Ebrahim M.A.
        • Eissa M.
        Urinary tract infection and adverse outcome of pregnancy.
        J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2007; 82: 203-218
        • Matuszkiewicz-rowińska J.
        • Małyszko J.
        • Wieliczko M.
        State of the art paper Urinary tract infections in pregnancy : old and new unresolved diagnostic and therapeutic problems.
        Arch Med Sci. 2015; 11: 67-77
        • Le J.
        • Briggs G.G.
        • McKeown A.
        • Bustillo G.
        Urinary tract infections during pregnancy.
        Ann Pharmacother. 2004; 38: 1692-1701
        • Perera J.
        • Randeniya C.
        • Perera P.
        • Gamhewage N.
        • Jayalatharchchi R.
        Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: prevalence, risk factors and causative organisms.
        Sri Lankan J Infect Dis. 2012; 2: 42-46
        • Boye A.
        • Siakwa P.M.
        • Boampong J.N.
        • Koffuor G.A.
        • Kwabena R.
        • Ephraim D.
        • et al.
        Asymptomatic urinary tract infections in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Cape Coast, Ghana.
        J Med Res. 2012; 1: 74-83
        • John A.S.
        • Mboto C.I.
        • Agbo B.
        A review on the prevalence and predisposing factors responsible for urinary tract infection among adults.
        Eur J Exp Biol. 2016; 6: 7-11
        • Bukola A.
        • Lillian A.
        • Henrietta S.
        • Maureen E.
        Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in two primary health care centres in Karu Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
        Br Microbiol Res J. 2016; 12: 1-8
        • Obiogbolu C.H.
        • Okonko I.O.
        • Anyamere C.O.
        • Adedeji A.O.
        • Akanbi A.O.
        • Ogun A.A.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) among pregnant women in Akwa metropolis, Southeastern Nigeria.
        Sci Res Essays. 2009; 4: 820-824
        • Tamalli M.
        • Sangar B.
        Urinary tract infection during pregnancy at Al-khoms, Libya.
        Int J Med Med Sci. 2013; 3: 455-459
        • Parveen K.
        • Momen A.
        • Begum A.A.
        • Begum M.
        Prevalence of urinary tract infection during pregnancy.
        J Dhaka Natl Med Coll Hosp. 2012; 17
        • American Pregnancy Association
        Urinary tract infection during preganncy.
        • Al-Kotb H.
        • Elbahnasawy H.T.
        • Samia A.
        • Nagar E.
        • Ghabyen N.S.
        Prevention for genitourinary tract infection among female adolescents students.
        J Nurs Heal Sci. 2016; 5: 12-18
        • Emiru T.
        • Beyene G.
        • Tsegaye W.
        • Melaku S.
        Associated risk factors of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia.
        BMC Res Notes. 2013; 6: 292-298
        • Dimetry S.
        • El-tokhy H.
        • Abdo N.
        • Ebrahim M.
        • Eissa M.
        Urinary tract infection and adverse outcome of pregnancy.
        J Egypt Heal Assoc. 2007; 82
        • Javaheri Tehrani F.
        • Nikpour S.
        • Haji Kazemi E.A.
        • et al.
        The effect of education based on health belief model on health beliefs of women with urinary tract infection.
        Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2014; 2: 2-11
        • Al-Kotb H.
        • Elbahnasawy H.T.
        • El Nagar S.A.
        • Ghabyen N.S.
        Prevention for genitourinary tract infection among female adolescents students.
        IOSR J Nurs Heal Sci. 2016; 05: 12-18
        • Zeyaullah M.
        • Kaul V.
        Prevalence of urinary tract infection and antibiotic resistance pattern in saudi arabia population.
        Glob J Biol Agric Heal Sci. 2015; 4: 206-214
        • Badran Y.A.
        • Ahmed T.
        • Kashef E.
        • Abdelaziz A.S.
        • Ali M.M.
        Impact of genital hygiene and sexual activity on urinary tract infection during pregnancy.
        Urol Ann. 2015; 7: 478-481
        • Foxman B.
        • Geiger A.M.
        • Palin K.
        • Gillespie B.
        • Koopman J.S.
        First-time urinary tract infection and sexual behavior.
        Epidemiology. 1995; 6: 162-168
        • Foxman B.
        • Frerichs R.R.
        Epidemiology of urinary tract infection: II. Diet, clothing, and urination habits.
        Am J Public Health. 1985; 75: 1314-1317
        • Palmieri B.
        • Pollastri F.
        • Scafati M.
        Vitamin C: Its clinical use and state of the art.
        Minerva Med. 2006; 34: 269-275
        • Wardle J.
        • Parmenter K.
        • Waller J.
        Nutrition knowledge and food intake.
        Appetite. 2000; 34: 269-275