CO2 pneumoperitoneum (PP) during laparoscopic surgery, can cause hypoxia and desiccation in the peritoneal mesothelial cell, resulting in a time-dependent retraction and bulging of these cells, an acute inflammatory reaction and enhanced adhesion formation. Since hypoxia is prevented by adding 4% of oxygen (O2) to the CO2 PP, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding 4% O2 to the CO2 PP on mesothelial cell morphology.
In a standardized laparoscopic mouse model (n=8 mice per group), a control group with a 30- or 60-min PP with humidified CO2 + 4% of O2 (groups I and II) was compared to a hypoxic group with 30- or 60-min humidified pure CO2 (groups III and IV) and a desiccation group with 60-min of dry CO2 PP (group V). The effect upon the peritoneum morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of abdominal wall peritoneal biopsies. Biopsies, taken immediately (n=4) and 24 hrs (n=4) after surgery, were compared to a group without PP (group VI, n=4). SEM pictures were blindly scored for cell retraction, deletion of microvilli, fibrin deposition, holes in the epithelial layer and visibility of cell borders using a semi-quantitative scoring system.
PP Hypoxia (CO2 PP) has a deleterious effect upon mesothelial morphology, immediately (holes: p= 0.04) and 24 hrs later (cell retraction: p=0.005; total score: p=0.03) . Desiccation has also a deleterious effect immediately (microvilli p=0.0090; fibrin deposition p=0.05) and 24 hrs after surgery (cell retraction: p=0.0036; holes: p=0.0004; microvilli: p< 0.0001, fibrin deposition: p=0.0225; borders: p=0.0007). This deleterious effect increases with duration of CO2 PP, affecting cell retraction (p=0.016), holes (p=0.0441), and the total score (p=0.0488). The addition of 4% of O2 to the CO2 PP failed to reach statistical significance.
These data confirm that CO2 PP and dry gas have a deleterious effect on mesothelial cell morphology. Humidification of the insufflation gas reduces this deleterious effect. The hypothesis of a protective effect of adding O2 failed to reach significance.
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Published online: August 21, 2021
Accepted: August 19, 2021
Received in revised form: July 3, 2021
Received: April 6, 2021
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