The Greek version of the Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire: Cross-cultural adaptation and validation amongst women with urinary incontinence

Published:November 01, 2022DOI:



      As in Greek settings there is a need to develop validated patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for pelvic floor dysfunction, this study’s aim was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire (APFQ) into Greek, a 42-item PRO for routine urogynaecological evaluation of four domains; bladder, bowel, prolapse and sexual function.

      Study design

      Cross-cultural translation was completed through official multistage forward and back-translation process. Validation involved administering the adapted APFQ (APFQ_GR) to women visiting Greek community-based healthcare settings. International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) was also administered. Comparison between women with and without pelvic floor dysfunction (symptomatic versus control) was also undertaken for exploring discriminatory validity. Test-retest reliability was explored by re-administering APFQ_GR 10–15 days following initial testing and internal consistency was explored against each domain separately as well as total items’ score.


      Greek APFQ translation was successfully performed and piloted to a women sample with varying levels of education for comprehensibility, thus, satisfying the questionnaire’s face validity. 100 women (53.7 ± 13.1 years-old) participated in validation, 63 of which predominantly complained of urinary incontinence (UI) and 37 were asymptomatic. There were no ceiling effects. Floor effects were detected for women without symptoms. Moderate to very strong correlations were yielded between APFQ_GR total score and bladder domain, respectively, with ICIQ-UI SF single-item and total score (ρ = 0.403–0.758, p < 0.001), indicating satisfactory criterion-related validity. Moderate correlations were yielded for the sexual function domain with APFQ_GR total score and weaker correlations were found in the other two domains. Independent samples t-test yielded significant differences across the questionnaire’s scores (p < 0.001), indicating good discriminatory validity between symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC3,1 = ≥0.998). Internal consistency was very good for each domain and total items’ score (Cronbach’s α = 0.714–0.924).


      The Greek APFQ was proven appropriate, comprehensible, valid and reliable for women with urinary incontinence and can thus, be used across Greek healthcare settings. Prolapse and bowel domains merit further research.


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