Hormonal IUD is the major hormonal contraceptive method used among women aged 40–49 years: Data from the 2015–16 Tromsø Study, Norway

  • Merethe Bjørkås
    Research Group Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases, Institute of Community Medicine, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø N-9037, Norway
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  • Finn Egil Skjeldestad
    Corresponding author at: Department of Community Medicine, Research Group Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø N 7037, Norway.
    Research Group Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases, Institute of Community Medicine, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø N-9037, Norway
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Published:November 23, 2022DOI:



      This study aims to investigate hormonal contraceptive (HC) use and user characteristics in women aged 40–49 years in Norway, as little is known on use of HCs in this age segment.

      Material and methods

      This prevalence study included 2296 women aged 40–49 years who participated in the 2015–16 Tromsø Study, which collected self-reported sociodemographic information and data from a wide range of validated health questionnaires. The participants had been sexually active the last 12 months prior enrollment, were not pregnant, not trying to conceive, and had no prior fertility problems. We categorized use of HC into three groups; no HC use, hormonal IUD use and other HC use. Explanatory variables included demographic, educational, economic and general health variables. All analyses were performed in SPSS with chi-square test and logistic regression at significance level p < 0.05.


      Nearly 50 % of the study sample reported HC use with hormonal IUD use as the major method (39.5 %/40–44 years; 43.4 %/45–49 years old women). There were no differences in HC use by partner status, educational level, or BMI. Though statistically significant, we found only minor differences in HC use by occupational status, gross household income, and general health status, with higher proportions of women with no paid work, the lowest income, and poor health status reporting no HC use.


      The high HC use and the minor differences found across demographic and socioeconomic parameters indicate that HC use, and hormonal IUD use in particular, is widely used among middle-aged women living in the city of Tromsø.


      BMI (Body mass index), CI (Confidence interval), HCs (Hormonal contraceptives), IUD (Intrauterine device)


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