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Primary prevention of cervical cancer in women: Human papillomavirus vaccine

Published:December 04, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2022.12.001
      Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequently occurring cancer among women worldwide with 90 % of the new cases and deaths occurring in low and middle income countries [
      • Sung H.
      • Ferlay J.
      • Siegel R.L.
      • Laversanne M.
      • Soerjomataram I.
      • Jemal A.
      • et al.
      Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries.
      ]. In the 1970 s, cervical cancer accounted for 4 % of all deaths from cancer in women in England and Wales each year [
      • Anderson M.C.
      7 - The Aetiology and Pathology of Cancer of the Cervix.
      ]. Despite its prevalence there was limited understanding of the cause[
      • Anderson M.C.
      7 - The Aetiology and Pathology of Cancer of the Cervix.
      ]. Sexual intercourse was established to be a major risk factor by Gagnon and Towne [
      • Gagnon F.
      Contribution to the study of the etiology and prevention of cancer of the cervix of the uterus.
      ,
      • Towne J.E.
      Carcinoma of the cervix in nulliparous and celibate women.
      ]. Their studies investigating the medical records of nuns demonstrated how rare cervical cancer was in women assumed to never have had sexual intercourse [
      • Gagnon F.
      Contribution to the study of the etiology and prevention of cancer of the cervix of the uterus.
      ,
      • Towne J.E.
      Carcinoma of the cervix in nulliparous and celibate women.
      ].
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