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Non-Excisional Therapeutic Modalities In Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia

  • Gonçalo Freitas
    Corresponding author.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, E.P.E. Oporto, Portugal

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oporto, Portugal
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  • Antónia Costa
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, E.P.E. Oporto, Portugal

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oporto, Portugal
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      Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia is an uncommon Human Papilloma Virus-related premalignant lesion of the lower genital tract. There is still no consensus regarding its management. Therapeutic modalities include observation, laser ablation, topical agents, radiation and surgical approach. Due to the current increasing adherence to minimally invasive therapies the aim of this study is to identify and characterize non-excisional treatment modalities.
      Expectant management is the first therapeutical option in low-grade lesions management. Up to 81% of lesions through an expectant approach regressed spontaneously and most of them were low-grade lesions. In contrast, high-grade lesions, due to its higher potential to invasion progression and low regression rate, require treatment, which should be selected depending on its characteristics and the patient’s preference.
      Laser ablation is suitable for multifocal lesions in sexually active young women with a cure rate up to 90% and recurrence rate up to 6.3%. Brachytherapy can be 71.4%-90% efficient with a maximum of 5.8% and 20% of persistence rate and recurrence rate, respectively. However, due to its toxicity, it should be reserved for selected cases only. Topical modalities for multifocal lesions, such as Imiquimod 5% and 5-Flouorouracil, have a good therapeutic effect, low pharmacological morbidity, and 25%-98% cure rate, 11.1%-75% persistence rate and 5.6%-94.4% recurrence rate.


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