Editors’ highlightsThe aim of this Journal is to publish review articles regularly every month and we are happy to continue to do so in the last issue of 2009. The first article deals with the role of myo-inositol in human reproduction and the second is a systematic review of the accuracy of C-reactive protein determination in predicting chorioamnionitis.
Editors’ highlightsWith summer gone and Christmas still to come, November is a month of long dark nights in Europe. These are good for academic work and discussion, and in some countries this is a busy time for local and regional meetings. In London the Academic Association of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (AAOG) is about to hold its fourth annual meeting. It evolved from an older organisation, the Association of Professors of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, with the purpose of being a voice for academics in our specialty in the British Isles.
Editors’ highlightsIn previous issues we have had the pleasure of offering reviews about a wide variety of subjects and this month we are happy to continue with five reviews ranging from the methodology of systematic reviews to COX-2 expression in ovarian malignancies. On page 121, Knox and colleagues from Birmingham, UK, memorably describe systematic reviews of fetal medicine as “a tool for translation of research findings from a few expert centres to a wider health care specialty”. They identified 84 reviews which met their inclusion criteria – over half being in the field of fetal pathology.
Editors’ highlightsIn January we mentioned that we were looking forward to the 19th FIGO World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Cape Town, South Africa. Now, with the Congress only a few weeks away, the size of the undertaking is clear. The organisers are expecting more than 6000 delegates and the scientific programme (available at www.figo2009.org.za ) is 86 pages long, with a list of topics ranging from molecular biology to orgasmic dysfunction. Without an early breakthrough in human cloning it will be impossible to attend all the simultaneous sessions.
Editors’ highlightsPostpartum haemorrhage (PPH) causes about 20% of maternal deaths in developing countries but the picture is very different in the developed world. For example, in the “Perinatal Data Base 2004 Hesse” PPH was only 1.1% and material death was not evident. If drugs are available and applied early enough in the postpartum period, and if specific causes of PPH (e.g. retention of placental tissue, coagulation disorders, uterine myomas and others) are managed appropriately, maternal death can be prevented in most cases.
Editors’ highlightsAlthough this issue looks no different from last month's, there has been a major change behind the scenes. Until now the Journal's editorial structure has been based on geography, with Regional Receiving Editors for Mediterranean countries, Scandinavian countries, and so on. This was appropriate for a journal covering a continent which, although small in terms of land mass, has a rich variety of languages, cultures and indeed styles of medical practice. In the past, local contact was essential and new research was presented at regional or national meetings which covered all branches of our specialty.
Editors’ highlightsDeath rates of mothers and fetuses during pregnancy, labor and the puerperium have always been strong indicators of the functioning of a health care system. Maternal death, once the most important indicator, is no longer the focus of attention as antepartum and intrapartum fetal death and neonatal death play an increasing role. Perinatal mortality (PNM) has fallen strikingly during the last decades, reaching 0.5–1.0% today in European countries, due to reorganization of hospital care by establishing neonatal intensive care units and improvement of obstetrical services.
Editors’ highlightsThe stillbirth rate attracts less attention in European countries than the perinatal mortality rate (PMR), which also includes neonatal deaths. Nevertheless the stillbirth rate may be the better guide to the quality of maternity care. We focus on the PMR because adverse events in pregnancy may lead to death after delivery as well as to stillbirth but the PMR may give us false reassurance about how well we are doing. In the UK in recent years there has been a slow but steady fall in the PMR which has been due entirely to a reduction in neonatal deaths, largely as a result of improving paediatric care of preterm babies.
Editors’ highlightsSix months ago, in the Editors’ Highlights of our October 2008 issue, we described the “Maternal and neonatal health – obstetric fistula” project in Northern Nigeria. It is supported by The Rotary Foundation, the Aventis Foundation, the Bundesministerium für Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung and Rotary Clubs from Nigeria, Germany and Austria. We pointed out that this project, which uses a benchmarking model in 10 hospitals in Kaduna and Kano, is designed to reduce the high maternal and fetal mortality in that area.
Editors’ highlightsWe are writing this “Editors’ highlights” column on what is an historic day – a global “highlight” indeed. By the time we finish writing, Barack Obama will have been inaugurated as the 44th President of the USA and the first president of African-American descent. There are people in America whose great-grandparents were bought and sold as slaves, and for them the impact of this event must be overwhelming, but the rest of us across the world can share the feeling of inspiration. Sadly, it was Europeans who introduced slavery into the Americas, and during the period of British colonisation, cities such as Glasgow, Liverpool and Bristol prospered greatly due in large part to the transatlantic slave trade.
Editors’ highlightsThe European Perinatal Health Report from the EURO PERISTAT project was released in December 2008, showing for the first time comparable data on maternal and infant health across Europe. It is the most comprehensive report on the subject to date and takes a new approach to health reporting. Instead of comparing single indicators like infant mortality in European countries, it paints a fuller picture by presenting data about mortality, low-birth-weight and preterm birth alongside data about health care and other factors that affect the outcome of pregnancy.
Editors’ highlightsAt the start of a new year we all like to look forward and already some forthcoming events in our specialty are creating a sense of anticipation. The nineteenth FIGO World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics will be held in Cape Town in October ( www.figo.org/meetings_congress_world.asp ). This city, at the meeting-point of two oceans and overlooked by its famous mountain, is a beautiful setting, and South Africa, ever since its first democratic elections in 1994, has been an inspiring country for the rest of the world.
Editors’ highlightsLike most journals in our specialty, EJOGRB appears every month. Our “Editors’ Highlights” is therefore prepared a few weeks ahead, and today as we write there is a flurry of concern in the media that taking antibiotics during pregnancy may increase the risk of cerebral palsy. This was the result of a press conference in London prior to on-line publication in The Lancet of a paper reporting 7-year follow up of the ORACLE study, a randomised trial of antibiotics to treat premature labour. Among the women who had had intact membranes, the incidence of subsequent reported cerebral palsy in the children was 1.7% in the control (no antibiotics) group but 3.3% in the group which had received erythromycin.
Editors’ HighlightsAlthough Editors’ Highlights usually focuses on the needs of European readers we are very pleased that, through the Internet, this Journal has a worldwide readership with a high proportion of electronic readers in North America. Transatlantic professional links are rather haphazard, however, and it is good to see that this month they are being strengthened by a gathering of obstetricians and gynaecologists from the UK, Canada and the USA. The seventh international scientific meeting of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists has been organised in conjunction with the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Editor's highlightsWhat is new?Review: Ovarian carcinoma is generally revealed too late, at a time when management is restricted to reducing the size of the tumour by operative treatment followed by chemotherapy. Only a small number of patients are diagnosed during the very early development of the tumour, usually during an abdominal or vaginal ultrasound examination within the framework of a routine check. Thus about 20% of ovarian cancer patients are diagnosed while the disease is limited to one or both ovaries.
Editors’ highlightsJuly is the month when most people look forward to holidays but it is a stressful time for medical students facing important examinations. Assessing clinical skills has never been easy and methods of doing so have changed. In the past students were watched examining real patients and the result might depend on whether the case was simple or difficult. Today many schools are trying to make assessment objective by using rubber models of the abdomen and pelvis, but these are expensive and the techniques of examining them are different from those required in practice.
Editors’ HighlightsMay 9th is “Europe Day”. On that date in 1950 the French foreign minister, Robert Schuman, called for the creation of a supranational institution to manage the combined coal and steel industries of France and Germany. His purpose, in the aftermath of World War II, was to make another war “not merely unthinkable but materially impossible” and he crystallised this into a practical proposal. Thirty-five years later European leaders recognised the Schuman declaration as the beginning of the European Union (EU) and decided to mark the date, though admittedly this celebration has not yet captured public imagination across the continent.
Editors’ highlightsGermany is presently fighting for a change in the law on stem cell research. On Thursday February 14, the discussion in the Bundestag, the German parliament, addressed one of science's most sensitive issues. Pressure is growing for an easing of restrictions that local scientists complain prevent them from keeping up with global advances. The Bundestag sees the stem cell question as one which carries historic overtones of the Nazis’ genetic experiments linked to the creation of a “master race”. Six years ago a law was passed banning the production of embryonic cells from pre-existing stem cell lines.
Editors’ HighlightsThe February Editors’ Highlights is an excellent opportunity to make you aware of the 20th European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology that will take place on 4–8 March 2008 in Lisbon, Portugal. It is the former EAGO congress now organized by the European Board and College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (EBCOG). Professor Dunlop, the congress president and President of EBCOG and of the Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) Section of O & G, says: “The Congress will bring you up to date information about all aspects of obstetrics and gynaecology.
Editors’ highlightsAssisted reproduction techniques (ART) are available in 28 European countries and are being used to treat increasing numbers of patients. In 2003, the most recent year for which pan-European figures are available, there were 365,103 treatment cycles with ART, 132,932 of which involved IVF and 162,149 involved ICSI. Over 46% of women undergoing IVF were aged over 34 and 12% were over 40. The risks of pregnancy are increased by ART. Risk to the baby has been reduced in some countries by limiting the number of embryos replaced but in eastern Europe more than 10% of ART cycles involved replacement of four or more embryos and in Greece the figure was 30%.
Editors’ highlightsIn 1826 a group of German professors with advanced ideas founded the “Common German Journal of Obstetrics” (Gemeinsame deutsche Zeitschrift für Geburtskunde) under the editorship of W.H. Busch of Marburg, L. Mende of Göttingen and F.A. Ritgen of Giessen. The editors wanted the content of the new journal to comprise obstetrics in the broadest sense. Similar activities also started in other European countries. At this time maternal mortality was elevated and infant mortality was incredibly high. Information and discussion about normal and pathologic situations during delivery were the first steps in improving the quality of obstetrical services.
Editors’ highlightsThe meetings of the Heads of States in Heiligendamm and in Brussels in June 2007 have undoubtedly demonstrated that the European Community should speak with one voice. To strengthen Europe for the future, finance and manpower on research have to be focussed on selected projects if it is to compete in the global market with the steadily growing regions of Asia and Africa. This is true not only for global business but also for science in many fields including health issues. The creation of Euroscience is a promising step in the right direction.
Editor's highlightsThis year the European Community's “Erasmus” programme is 20 years old. It is named after Desiderius Erasmus, an illegitimate boy from Rotterdam who studied in Paris, Louvain, Cambridge, Venice and Basel and became Europe's leading scholar of the 16th century. Five hundred years later, European academics are much less mobile, partly because we no longer speak to one another in Latin. Nevertheless, despite language barriers, it is possible for students – even medical students – to undertake parts of their courses in different countries.